Christopher Columbus was a Catalan
«De ti espero, señor, que la confusión no dure eternamente»
Albinoni's Adaggio, is known today.. as Albinoni-Giazzotto's, and everybody is happy for the discovery...
Il "spagnoletto" was taken as Castillian, until in 1950 someone proved he was from Valencia
A manuscrit with astronautical tables defined as "alfonsíes" by Rico Sinobas was proven to be catalan by Steinschneider
Petrus Rosselli (and others), italian for some scholars, until Julio Rey Pastor demonstrated he was from Mallorca
Saying he was from Genoa is just the easy way... but leading to something wich is impossible...
Use the common sense, something ULLOA has used in 1927, scholars have found explanations for the documents that say he was a "genoese-vir ligur", and... the common sense will prevail..
A humble (and without culture) son of a winemaker arrives to Lisbone and marries the king's cousin, are you aware of that fact?, impossible on the s.xv.. they would have cuted his head, just for pretending such a thing.
Italians have found a Christoforo Colombo in Genoa but he couldn't be the discoverer, he just does not match the "robot portrait"
Imagine until what point this is true that the actual supporters of the Genoa theory, they just joined the catalan arguments they didn't accept during the last 80 years, by saying:
"Our humble Colombo was adopted by a noble family, therefore all said about the catalan noble is good for ours, who in fact became noble by adoption"
The genoese helped the Count of Barcelona to reconquer Tortosa from the moors, and in exchange he gave them a piece of land (one day was an island) wich they called Genoa, beeing genoese its inhabitants and for the same reason, called "vir ligur" a man who came from there.
After the battle of Cape Saint Vincent (documented by his son), the genoese ships accorded to reagrupate in Cadis, wich is much closer to Cape Saint Vincent than Lisbonne, why Colom (this is the way he signed his 1st letter to the king of Aragon)didn't join them?, and went to Lisbonne instead, for never returning to Genoa for the rest of his live?
Mr. Morrison..: He wrote a great work about him, about Guahani island (probably with a wrong identification) and about the course followed on his first trip (maybe feasible with a low weight s.xx sailing ship, but impossible on a s.xv Carabela, L.M. Coin Cuenca did the trip with an exact replica, in the same time, using the Green Cape currents), but among the errors he commited, he didn't study "Alcaçobas Treaty" that forced Colom to lie about the true course. He didn't investigate enough his life and time, he just repeated what others said, so it's not serious mentioning him to prove he was a genoese. If you want to know more about that..read my blog...:
The ambassadors of Genoa were in Barcelona when he was received by the Kings, and in their letters and briefings sent to Genoa, they didn't mention a word about him being genoese... A compatriot heroe of the moment, together with them in Barcelona and they didn't report a single word about this fact?
Ferdinad Columbus, went to Genoa looking for traces of his father's family, and he couldn't find any (30 year after his father's death), not even a single relative. But some impostors appeared in the trials, with the pretension of being Colom descendants, being denied by the court. He was looking for some relatives in Lerida, when he received the order from the Emperor, to stop all his investigations
You ought to look at the Historiae where you can read the long promenades on horse his father spent with the King, while he was healing "la puñalada que le asestó Joan de Canyamars en el pescueso", this was obviously in St. Jeroni de la Murtra in Badalona where the king was convalescing. Well, Ferdinand has bought the book "Usos i costums de la parroquia de Badalona".
If you read the trials held with the crown (something it seems Mr.Morrison hasn't done and Luis Ulloa Cisneros did for sure), for recovering the rights in America promissed to Colom, the argument of the crown was that being a Genoese not nationalized in Castille, all the papers and concessions where illegal. Do you think that Columbus was stupid, and he wouldn't had covered that issue? He could have obtained the nationality, after living 12 years in Castilla, and he didn't. He was so aware of that danger that he kept many copies of all his documents, sending even a copy to Sergio Oderigo, by the way..., writing to him in spanish!!!!
The emperor used the Genoese argument against Luis Colón, and when Luis insisted in his pretensions, condemned him for bigammia and made him die imprisoned in Oran. It is very clear that nobody could fight the crown! The Pope did and Rome got looted!!!. When somebody talks about "parochialism" I would like you to know that the person who unveiled the Catalan Columbus was Luis Ulloa Cisneros from Perú (not catalan as you insinuate)and the Raccolta was made by italian people the same that wanted Petrus Rosselli, and a dozen of portolan makers from Mallorca, being italian, we had luck.., Julio Rey Pastor has unveiled the truth
What I am going to tell you is cruel but is the pure truth..., Italy as a nation had disappeared from the map for centuries (8, 9, 10?) splitted into small republics, and the Pope states, with the biggest pieces having been conquered by Catalunya (Sicily, Sardinia 1324, Naples 1451, Lombardia 1525), when Garibaldi got the unification (although Cavour broke his republican dreams), the italians had to find their identity and indeed they have achieved it!. Italian are very good, but in the search of their lost identity, they went to far away with Columbus, with catalan cartographers and maybe with some other.., that's "parochialism". In the mean time Catalunya (1640, 1714 till today)was inmersed in the biggest repression a nation has ever suffered (Philip V, the bourbons & other dictatorships), not being able to clame anything until now..
Arguments backing the catalan origin (and against being genoese)
- 1.-When the Kings honour him with new coat of arms said ..to bear besides the arms he already had, the catalan Colom where noble
- 2.-He said that he was not the first admiral of his family, the catalan Colom where admirals of Aragon
- 3.-He signs Colom in Catalan in the 17 editions of his first letter to the King
- 4.-There are numerous Catalan idiotisms (56) in the first printed letter - Pere Posa de Barcelona - hidden for 350 years
- 5.-All the italianisms found in his writings, can be explained at the same time as catalanisms
- 6.-His surname is clearly catalan. Vicente Eanes Pinçon and Martin Alonso Pinçon.. Portuguese (father's name goes at the end)
- 7.-In the Colombine Library Index we can read: Letter from my father Christopher Columbus to "secretary of ration" written in Catalan
- 8.-Colom introduced a lot of Catalan sea-terms in Castilian language (admitted by R.A.E.).
- 9.-The first settlements in the Canary Islands were not Castilian but Catalan (videt Rumeu de armas)=> he knew the owner of La Gomera
- 10.-Henry the Navigator hired the jewish Jafuda Cresques Mallorca to create the Cartographic school of Sagres, his brother Bartholomew (and himself) followed the mapping tradition of Mallorca
- 11.-He could reside at the court of Portugal, for he fought backing Pere IV (infant of Portugal), in the war against Juan II.
- 12.-His friends and protectors were from the Crown of Aragon (Luis de Santangel, Sanchis, Duque de Medinaceli - Viscount of Cabrera)
- 13.-The capitulations gave him the requested title of viceroy, that only existed in the crown of Aragon
- 14.-He got paid and did the money calculations in ducats, which were only used in Catalonia
- 15.-According to the Castilians, he spoke with an "foreign" accent. The Catalans were considered foreigners in Castilla
- 16.-Colom lived 22 years in Castilla and he didn't change his nationality. Being a subdit of Aragon he didn't had to.
- 17.-He was devote of the "Virgen de la Cinta de Tortosa" Before leaving he made an offer in her oratory in Huelva
- 18.-In the storm in his trip back, he made his sailors sing the "Ave Maris Stella" of the "Virgen de la Cinta de Tortosa".
- 19.-The Kings received him in Badalona (fact concealed for 350 years)=>Book in "The colombine" about "traditions of Badalona Parish"
- 20.-The second trip is organized with Catalan people in Barcelona (fra Boil, Pere Marguerite, Miquel Ballester ..)
- 21.-Colom brings sugar cane to the Caribbeam on his 2nd trip. Bagasses, molasses, masse cuite, calandria (Catalan terms in english sugar industry language)
- 22.-A friend of his, Jacme Ferrer de "Blanes" (not from Burgos), was the Catalan cartographer who calculated the line of Tordesillas
- 23.-He used diminutives in -ico as pajaricos, catalanoaragonese diminutives... Where would a catalan, learn castilian?.. In Aragon.
- 24.-He gave Catalan names to several islands: Ferrandina, Jamaica (Jaumaica=> -Jaimita, as pajarico, catalanoaragonese diminutive of Jaime), Montserrat (4th island of 2nd trip) and Margarita Island (his favorite), named "Margalida" (in catalan) on the map of Juan de la Cosa 1500
Arguments against the Genoese origin
- 1.-When the Kings honour him with new coat of arms said ..to bear besides the arms he already had, he was son of a winemaker
- 2.-He said that he was not the first admiral of his family, the Colombo were of humble origin (wool traders and winemakers)
- 3.-He said he embarked at a very early age & had already spent 40 years at sea when arriving to Portugal. The Genoese Colombo embarked on a ship at 22
- 4.-He sailed under the command of Renato of Anjou against Fernando, genoese where with Fernando (Catalan civil war)
- 5.-After the battle of Cape St Vincent, Colón went to Lisbon, the Genoese to Cadis
- 6.-A Genoese of humble origin (wool trader-wine maker) could not enter the court of Portugal and marry the king's cousin
- 7.-That uncultivated son of a winemaker of Genoa, was unable to make the seafaring epic that needed high navigational knowledge
- 8.-The Genoese Cristoforo Colombo could not be the "Colom admiral" who had no Italian culture at all (wrote to Oderigo in spanish and left some apostilles on his books in a horrible italian)
- 9.-Colón was a cultivated person even in the use of Latin language(texts written by him in a very good Latin)
- 10.-Colón always wrote in the castilian language, even when writing to his sons or Sergio Oderigo of the San Giorgio's Bank of Genoa
- 11.-He knew the Crown could legaly anulate the Capitulations by saying he was a foreigner, but a Genoese could get the nationality, after living 12 years in Castilla,
- 12.-He never aplied for spanish nationality, even being so aware of the danger of the crown anulating his rights, the proof is that he kept many copies of all his documents with his friends...
- 13.-The ambassadors of Genoa were in Barcelona when he was received by the Kings, and in their letters and briefings sent to Genoa, they didn't mention a word about him being genoese..
- 14.-Ferdinad Columbus, went to Genoa looking for traces of his father's family, and he couldn't find any, not even a single relative.